Description of Kazungula District.
- Kazungula is one of thirteen districts in the southern province of Zambia.
- It covers an area of 16,835 km² and is the largest district in the province.
- The district completely surrounds Livingstone district except for a short stretch where Livingstone shares borders with Zimbabwe.
- It shares International borders with Zimbabwe on the South-East, Botswana and Namibia on the South-West.
- The District stretches along the Zambezi River to share boundaries with Mwandi District to the West, Mulobezi, Kaoma, Itezhi-Tezhi and Namwala Districts to the North West, Zimba and Kalomo to the North.
The district has a population of 120, 231 (2010 CSO Census) 49% are males and 51% are females living in 20,417 households with a population density of 6 persons per square kilometre and with a population growth of 3.7%. The district is by and large very rural with 95% of the people living in rural areas, of whom about 66% of the population lives below the poverty datum line. These people have little political influence on decision making despite having civic representation hence, have limited access to quality education and healthcare among others.
- Kazungula was elevated to district status in september 1998.
- Government departments, parastatals, NGOs and ZAWA are;
- Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, ZAWA, council, education, health, police, national registration, immigration, oop, social welfare, community development. Zesco, mtn, ZAMTEL, and Airtel; banks: zanaco and natsave.
- Cbos; community resource boards, community-based natural resource trusts, Catholic diocese.
POLITICAL SYSTEM, GOVERNANCE AND TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP
- The district has one (1) parliamentary constituency
- Fourteen (14) political wards. These are mandia, sikaunzwe, sekute, ngwezi, moomba, musokotwane, simango, kanchele, katapazi, mukuni, nyawa, nguba, kauwe and chooma wards.
- Traditionally, the district is divided into five (5) chiefdoms namely: chief sekute, chief nyawa, chief musokotwane, chief mukuni and chief Moomba. There is no paramount chief among these chiefs.
- The main tribe in the district is Toka Leya, lozi and tonga.
- The majority (66%) of the population within Kazungula does not receive any form of income (CSO 2010).
- The largest employer is peasant/subsistence farming, cross-border trading and fishing.
The main economic sectors in Kazungula are agriculture, manufacturing, trade and commerce and tourism.
- The informal sector is characterised by fish trading, trading in second hand and new clothes and footwear, small-scale fishing, trading in vegetables and other foodstuffs, beer brewing, carpentry, production and selling of traditional handicrafts, trading in groceries, restaurants, bars and charcoal burning and selling.
- The major activity in the secondary sector is the generation of power at batoka gorge located in mukuni ward. Other secondary sector activities though of less economic significance are the production of timber and carpentry.
- Tourism is one of the major sectors of Kazungula’s economy. The sector has had positive impacts on the economy of the district. Tourism is labour intensive and hence provides employment to a significant number of people.
- There are several lodges and guest houses in Kazungula Township, along the Lower Zambezi River.
- Tourism development still remains far below potential because of challenges of poor and inadequate infrastructure, limited investment, fragmented operations, inadequate marketing and limited skilled manpower.
- Despite the fact that the District lies along Zambezi River, boat cruising, gymnasiums and saunas, are not being utilized.
Infrastructure covers among others the following:
a)Transport infrastructure, including roads, bridges, aerodromes and inland waterways; drainages
b)Building infrastructure, covering office and residential accommodation, schools, health centre’s, sports complexes, museums, heritage sites, courts and prisons; and
c)Dams used for agriculture-related economic activities
- While the Construction of Kazungula District Hospital is at 90% under phase one of the project.
- Construction of 30 housing units for government department is at various stages 10.
- Construction of Kazungula Bridge has commenced so far Building of pillars and one-quarter of the bridge has been done.
- The construction of the truck yard the superstructure is completed
- Construction of 10 classroom blocks and 10 VIP toilets.
- Construction of CIVIC Center is above ring beam while the District Administration is at slab level.
- The Construction of the post office is at roof level.
- The local court is completed and operational
- Construction of Sibandwa Dam
- There are currently few commercial farmers in the district
- Most of the farming communities in the district are in the category of small-scale farming.
- There are 10,522 small-scale farmers farming a wide range of crops such as maize, sorghum, millet, groundnuts and cotton.
- some farmers have increased their fields to become medium scale farmers. The crops grown by these farmers include but not limited to maize, sorghum, millet, groundnuts, cotton, Cassava and vegetables
- Livestock production in Kazungula District is done on small scale by traditional pastoralists.
- There are a number of livestock species that are reared in Kazungula District but the notable ones include cattle, goats, sheep, donkeys, poultry and pigs.
Water and Sanitation
- In the area of sanitation, improvements under the urban and peri-urban water supply and sanitation were varied, covering the areas of solid waste management and maintenance of water supply schemes.
- Progress was made in the area of construction and rehabilitation of boreholes with 30 new boreholes constructed and 32 boreholes rehabilitated in 2016.
- Kazungula has 380 existing water points which are functional; though, water supply and sanitation service coverage are still very low. The majority of the urban population relied on on-site systems.
- We have no filling station in the District.
- Wood fuel (firewood and charcoal) remains the dominant source of energy in the district, accounting for almost 80 per cent of total energy consumption.
- Firewood is predominantly consumed by rural households while charcoal is a major source of energy for urban households. The annual loss of forest cover was estimated at 1.2 per cent due to land clearing for agricultural use rather than energy purposes.
- The Kazungula District HIV/AIDS prevalence is currently at 15.4%, according to the demographic health survey of 2007.
- The drivers of new infections in Kazungula are; Multiple and Concurrent Sex Partners (MCP), Low and Inconsistent condom use, Mobility and labour migration, key populations, early and forced marriages, unemployment and poverty, Low levels of male circumcision, alcohol and drug abuse, harmful traditional and cultural practices and Mother to Child Transmission.
- Health services in the District are provided through the twenty- two (22) Rural Health Centres (RHCs). The District has two laboratory facilities at Mukuni and Sons of Thunder.
- Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV is offered at the 22 RHCs while ART at 15 RHCs (3 static, 12 mobiles).
- In conclusion, Kazungula District aims at promoting balanced development, coordinated through a decentralized and coherent process.
- The District has made progress in implementing economic and social investment programmes in all the wards of the district.
- A number of schools, health posts, a district hospital, dams and a feeder road have been constructed and/or rehabilitated. However, development varied because the 90 % of the district is rural and failed to attract investment in key priority areas.